Map of the Mauryan Empire
He was the first person to fight to improve women's rights. He set a network of universities and schools for women.As a buddhist monk does, he strived to restore the thoughts of the Indian society to ones of peaceful exsistance and a tranquil life.
Responsible for figuring out the lenghth of year, that planets are spherical, what an eclipse is, and after many trials and theories, they made a fairly accurate apromiximation of the size of the Earth.
Writing is one of their biggest achievements. Dharmasastras were important legal text, Puranas were holy text, and Mahabaratas were what we today would call "a classic style poem".
Medicine wasn't very advanced back then. Ayurvedic medicine focused on the balance and unity of mind body and spirit. They often prescribed ointments, liqiuds, and powders. Most all hospitals were funded by the religious leaders and citizens.